ISO/TR 16268:2009 specifies a procedure for the certification of the areic dose of an ion-implanted analyte element of atomic number larger than that of silicon retained in a working reference material (WoRM) intended for surface-analytical use. The WoRM is in the form of a polished (or similarly smooth-faced) wafer (also referred to as the host), of uniform composition and nominal diameter 50 mm or more, that has been ion-implanted with nominally one isotope of a chemical element (also referred to as the analyte), not already present in the host, to a nominal areic dose normally within the range 1016 atoms/cm2 to 1013 atoms/cm2 (i.e. the range of primary interest in semiconductor technology). The areic dose of the ion-implanted analyte retained in the WoRM wafer is certified against the areic dose of the same analyte retained in an ion-implanted silicon wafer having the status of a (preferably certified) secondary reference material (SeRM).
Information is provided on the concept and the procedure for certification of the WoRM. There is also a description of the requirements for the reference materials, the comparative measurements and the actual certification. Supporting information on ion implantation, ion-implantation dosimetry, wavelength-dispersive X‑ray fluorescence spectroscopy and non-certified substitutes for unobtainable SeRMs is provided in four annexes. Sources and magnitudes of uncertainties arising in the certification process are detailed in a fifth annex.