Smart manufacturing refers to multiple ‘new normals’ in the context of manufacturing – that is, how industry will leverage the application of new disruptive technologies such as ‘Artificial intelligence’, ‘Edge computing’, ‘Robotics’, ‘Additive manufacturing’ (3D printing), ‘Gene editing’ and the ‘Internet of Things’, to change the face of traditional manufacturing. Smart manufacturing has been described as a “fusion of the digital, biological and physical world”[1] and represents a change that is so significant that it is sometimes referred to as the ‘fourth industrial revolution’.[2] Smart manufacturing could represent an important opportunity to boost sustainable manufacturing and, as its implementation expands, it will be essential to develop a better understanding of how it can contribute to sustainable development while improving system efficiency.[3] Below, we explore one industry that will hopefully benefit from smart manufacturing to increase sustainability (the plastics industry), and one key enabler of smart manufacturing that is undergoing rapid development and expansion (additive manufacturing).

Technology trends

New generation plastics

Today’s plastics, with a predominantly linear material flow, unquestionably face challenges, both regarding CO2-emissions due to their fossil-basis, and to plastic pollution (unintended leakage and subsequent accumulation of plastics in the environment or even the human body). The question is, how will we ensure we have the materials for the future without compounding these problems?

Many companies are developing alternatives based on renewable, biomass materials, including e.g. flax, mushrooms, and shrimp shells.[4,5] The formulation of existing plastics can also be changed to make them more degradable[5] and, finally, innovations in recycling technologies will make manufacturing the materials of the future more sustainable.

As one of the largest sectors in the manufacturing industry, innovations in plastic production systems themselves are also a key driver of change. The data collected by more efficient sensors and smart machinery (see ‘Internet of Things’) can improve the consistency of products, limiting defects (and ultimately reducing plastic pollution), reducing energy consumption and costs, and improving competitiveness.[6,7]

News stories

Plastic pollution is a key environmental challenge today, calling for a new global agreement and sustainable solutions. Standards for plastics enjoy a privileged status in making this happen. 
Plastic is an important material in our economy and daily lives. It has multiple functions that can help tackle a number of the challenges facing our society, be it packaging that ensures food safety and …
Technical Committee
  • Published 742 Standards | Developing 92 Projects
  • ISO 16620-1:2015
    Biobased content
    Part 1: General principles
  • ISO 17088:2021
    Organic recycling
    Specifications for compostable plastics
  • ISO 22526-1:2020
    Carbon and environmental footprint of biobased plastics
    Part 1: General principles
  • ISO 22526-2:2020
    Carbon and environmental footprint of biobased plastics
    Part 2: Material carbon footprint, amount (mass) of CO2 removed from the air and incorporated into polymer molecule
  • ISO 22526-3:2020
    Carbon and environmental footprint of biobased plastics
    Part 3: Process carbon footprint, requirements and guidelines for quantification
  • ISO 22526-4:2023
    Carbon and environmental footprint of biobased plastics
    Part 4: Environmental (total) footprint (Life cycle assessment)

Additive manufacturing

Additive manufacturing produces objects through a process of layering together raw materials. This is different to traditional (subtractive) manufacturing, which creates parts out of raw materials.[8] Additive manufacturing is widely known as ‘3D printing’, but this style of manufacturing also Includes ‘4D printing’, an emerging approach that allows the manufacture of products that respond to things like heat, light, and the passing of time.[9]

The use of additive manufacturing is expected to increase, with many new applications for both commercial and personal use. The ability to print products for personal use will open markets for blueprints and designs, while increasing the customization options available to consumers (see ‘Customized products’). A potentially endless range of products could be manufactured using additive methods, including machinery parts, consumer goods such as shoes and furniture and healthcare products like hearing aids and prosthetics.[8,10]

If additive manufacturing grows, we can expect an increased impact on trade – perhaps a reduction in the transport of goods, along with an increase in the transport of raw materials. Overall, this would be expected to reduce global freight volume.[8]

Of course, additive manufacturing has some challenges, such as ensuring cybersecurity and management of intellectual property. Companies and governments will need to be attentive to emerging issues to ensure the benefits of additive manufacturing are enjoyed by all.

News stories

We can no longer envision a world without computers or the Internet, but in 2017 this is old news. Much more exciting developments are in the pipeline. From virtual reality to artificial intelligence, if …
ISO and ASTM International have jointly crafted the Additive Manufacturing Standards Development Structure, a framework which will help meet the needs for new technical standards in this fast-growing field. …
Don’t be afraid to see big. Additive manufacturing – known in popular culture as 3D printing – is a concept that has captured the attention of many with its science fiction connotations. Yet the technology …
This white paper is aimed at people who are curious about smart manufacturing, searching for generic information about the concept, and/or trying to get an understanding of what is being done in the arena of international standardization and the implications it might have to industry.
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 261
Additive manufacturing
  • Published 42 Standards | Developing 24 Projects
  • ISO/ASTM 52900:2021
    Additive manufacturing
    General principles
    Fundamentals and vocabulary
  • ISO/ASTM CD TR 52918 [Under development]
    Additive manufacturing
    Data formats
    File format support, ecosystem and evolutions
Technical Committee
Information technology
  • Published 3496 Standards | Developing 503 Projects
  • ISO/IEC 3532-2:2024
    Information technology
    Medical image-based modelling for 3D printing
    Part 2: Segmentation
  • ISO/IEC 23510:2021
    Information technology
    3D printing and scanning
    Framework for an Additive Manufacturing Service Platform (AMSP)
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 184
Automation systems and integration
  • Published 900 Standards | Developing 66 Projects
Technical Committee
Technical Management Board - groups
  • Published 66 Standards | Developing 9 Projects
  • ISO/TMBG/SMCC Coordination Committee on Smart Manufacturing
  • White paper on Smart Manufacturing
    This white paper is aimed at people who are curious about smart manufacturing, searching for generic information about the concept, and/or trying to get …


  1. Foresight Africa. Top priorities for the continent 2020-2030 (Brookings Institution, 2020)
  2. White paper on smart manufacturing (ISO Smart Manufacturing Coordinating Committee, 2021)
  3. Sustainable and smart manufacturing: an integrated approach (Sustainability, 2020)
  4. Ten trends that will shape science in the 2020s. Medicine gets trippy, solar takes over, and humanity—finally, maybe—goes back to the moon (Smithsonian Magazine, 2020)
  5. Global trends to 2030. Challenges and choices for Europe (European Strategy and Policy Analysis System, 2019)
  6. Smart Manufacturing in Plastic Injection Molding (Manufacturing Tomorrow, 2017)
  7. Eight ways smart manufacturing is moving into the mainstream in 2021 (Plastics Machinery & Manufacturing, 2021)
  8. Global connectivity outlook to 2030 (World Bank, 2019)
  9. 2021 Tech trends report. Strategic trends that will influence business, government, education, media and society in the coming year (Future Today Institute, 2021)
  10. Global strategic trends. The future starts today (UK Ministry of Defence, 2018)